JoAnn Difede, Ph.D.

Child and Adolescent Psychology


Select Recently Published Journal Articles

Rizzo A, Buckwalter G, Forbell E, Reist C, Difede J, Rothbaum B, Lange B, Koenig S, Talbot T. Virtual Reality Applications to Address the Wounds of War. Psychiatric Annals, 43(3): 123-138, 2013.

McLay RN, Graap K, Spira J, Perlman K, Johnston S, Rothbaum BO, Difede J, Deal W, Oliver D, Baird A, Bordnick PS, Spitalnick J, Pyne JM, Rizzo A. Development and testing of virtual reality exposure therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in active duty service members who served in Iraq and Afghanistan. Military Medicine, 177(6): 635-642, 2012.

Cukor J, Wyka K, Mello B, Olden M, Jayasinghe N, Roberts J, Giosan C, Crane M, Difede J. The longitudinal course of PTSD among disaster workers deployed to the World Trade Center following the attacks of September 11th. Special Issue: The September 11th 2001 Terrorist Attacks: Ten Years After. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24(5): 506-514, 2011.

Rizzo AA, Lange B, Buckwalter JG, Forbell E, Kim J, Sagae K, Williams J, Rothbaum BO, Difede J, Reger G, Parsons T, Kenny P. An intelligent virtual human system for providing healthcare information and support. Studies in Health Technology & Informatics, 163: 503-509, 2011.

Rizzo A, Parsons TD, Lange B, Kenny P, Buckwalter JG, Rothbaum B, Difede J, Frazier J, Newman B, Williams J, Reger G. Virtual Reality Goes to War: A Brief Review of the Future of Military Behavioral Healthcare. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 18(2): 176-187, 2011.

Cukor J, Wyka K, Jayasinghe N, Weathers F, Giosan C, Leck P, Roberts J, Spielman L, Crane M, Difede J. Prevalence and Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Utility Workers Deployed to the World Trade Center Following the Attacks of September 11, 2001. Depression and Anxiety, 28(3): 210-217, 2011.

Reger G, Holloway K, Candy C, Rothbaum BO, Difede J, Rizzo A, Gahm G. Effectiveness of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Active Duty Soldiers in a Military Mental Health Clinic. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24(1): 93-96, 2011.


Cukor J, Wyka K, Jayasinghe N, Difede J.￯﾿ᄑ@ The nature and course of subthreshold PTSD.￯﾿ᄑ@ Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24(8): 918-23, 2010.

Difede J, Barchas JD: Psychiatric and neurologic aspects of war: An overview and perspective. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1208: 1-9, 2010.

Cukor J, Olden M, Lee FS, Difede J: Evidence-based treatments for PTSD, new directions, and special challenges. Annals of the NY Academy of Science, 1208: 82-89, 2010.

Olden M, Cukor J, Rizzo S, Rothbaum BO, Difede J: House Calls Revisited: Leveraging Technology to Overcome Obstacles to Psychiatric Care and Improve Treatment Outcomes. Annals of the NY Academy of Science, 1208: 133-141, 2010.

Gerardi M, Cukor J, Difede J, Rizzo A, Rothbaum B.￯﾿ᄑ@ Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for￯﾿ᄑ@Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and￯﾿ᄑ@Other Anxiety Disorders.￯﾿ᄑ@ Current Psychiatry Reports, 12(4): 298-305, 2010.￯﾿ᄑ@

Book Chapters

Leaman S, Rothbaum BO, Difede J, Cukor J, Gerardi M, Rizzo A. Treating Combat-Related PTSD With Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy. In A. Rubin, E. L. Weiss, & J. E. Coll (Eds.), Handbook of Military Social Work, 113-140. John Wiley and Sons, 2012.

Roy MJ, Rizzo A, Difede J, Rothbaum BO. Emerging and Alternative Therapies for PTSD.
In D. Benedek, G. H. Wynn (Eds.), Clinical Manual for the Management of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc., 2010.

Rothbaum BO, Difede J, Rizzo AA. Therapist Treatment Manual for Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Iraq Combat Veterans, Geneva Foundation, 2009.

Difede J, Cukor J: Evidence based long-term treatment of mental health consequences of disasters among adults. In Y. Neria, S. Galea, F. Norris (Eds.), Mental Health Consequences of Disaster. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Rizzo A, Gahm G, Reger G, Difede J, Rothbaum B: Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Combat-related PTSD. In P. Shiromani, T. Keane, & J. LeDoux (Eds.), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Basic Science and Clinical Practice, 375-399. New Jersey: Humana Press, 2009.

Difede J, Roberts J, Jayasinghe N, Leck P: Evaluation and treatment of firefighters and utility workers following the World Trade Center attacks. In Y. Neria, R. Gross, R. Marshall, & E. Susser (Eds.), 9/11: Mental Health in the Wake of Terrorist Attacks. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Difede J, Cukor J, Jayasinghe N, Hoffman H: Developing a virtual reality treatment protocol for posttraumatic stress disorder following the World Trade Center attack. In Roy, MJ (Ed.) NATO Security through Science: Novel Approaches to the Diagnosis and Treatment of PTSD. IDS Press, 2006.

Difede J: Acute psychiatric responses to the explosion at the World Trade Center: A case series. In Kushner H (Ed.), Essential readings on political terrorism: analyses of problems and prospects for the 21st century. New York: Gordian Knot Books, 2002.


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